Lands Of Ice And Fire Epub Format
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The elven kingdoms watched warily as the djinni Lord Calim and the efreet Lord Memnon arrived in the lands to the south-west and renewed their ancient war. The elves of Tethir and Darthiir signed a peace treaty with Calim and traded with his empire, but Memnon was considerably more hostile, destroying the dwarven city of Iltakar when it complained about territorial violations. When the two empires began the Skyfire Wars in 6500 BDR, threatening to destroy all of Faerûn, the elven High Mages of both kingdoms intervened (led by the infamous mage Pharos), imprisoning both lords in a massive magical trap (inadvertently creating the Calim Desert in the process) some four centuries later.
Over the past decade, BLM has issued other types of guidance dealing with transportation on its lands. For instance, in 2001 the agency issued the National Management Strategy for Motorized Off-Highway Vehicle Use on Public Lands. The strategy has multiple purposes, including to guide land managers in resolving OHV issues; to promote consistency of OHV decision-making; to highlight needed staff and funding for OHV management; to reduce conflicts among land users; to promote responsible OHV use and reduce habitat degradation; and to lead to an update of OHV regulations (which has not occurred to date).19 More recently, in 2011, BLM issued a manual on travel and transportation management, and in 2012 the agency released a related handbook, to cover planning and management of all modes of travel and public access needs.20 The documents are intended to serve as a guide for BLM field offices to improve travel planning, signing, mapping, and travel information. Further, the BLM's National Training Center has initiated a training program on travel and transportation planning and management for BLM field units. Seven training sessions were conducted in FY2012 and 13 are planned for FY2013.
The FS generally agreed with the findings in the GAO's 2009 report on OHV use on federal lands, according to the FS comments on the draft report.50 One of the GAO recommendations was for the establishment of a nationwide strategy for OHV use and performance measures and timeframes for carrying out OHV goals. In response, the FS developed the Route and Area Designation Implementation Guide in 2010.51 As of December 2012, the FS was in the process of developing performance measures for OHV goals, and planned to complete and implement the measures by 2014.52 In response to the GAO recommendation to improve communication with the public about OHV use, the FS established an interactive travel map on their website with improved information about which roads and trails are available for OHV use on national forest lands.53 In response to the GAO recommendation to enhance law enforcement of OHV use, the FS examined fines for OHV related violations and is considering the feasibility of a system-wide standard for fine amounts.54
For information on motorized recreation in the National Park System, see CRS Report R42955, Motorized Recreation on National Park Service Lands. For information on legislation in the 112th Congress pertaining to certain other types of recreation on federal lands, see CRS Report R42569, Hunting, Fishing, and Recreational Shooting on Federal Lands: H.R. 4089 and Related Legislation, and CRS Report R42751, Hunting, Fishing, Recreational Shooting, and Other Wildlife Measures: S. 3525. For background on recreation fees charged by the BLM and FS and other federal agencies, see CRS Report RL33730, Recreation Fees Under the Federal Lands Recreation Enhancement Act. 2b1af7f3a8