Game Engine Architecture Jason Gregory Torrent
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In this new and improved third edition of the highly popular Game Engine Architecture, Jason Gregory draws on his nearly two decades of experience at Midway, Electronic Arts and Naughty Dog to present both the theory and practice of game engine software development. In this book, the broad range of technologies and techniques used by AAA game studios are each explained in detail, and their roles within a real industrial-strength game engine are illustrated.
This one is great for programming best practices and tips from the trenches. Tons of game programming books have you go down the same path with whatever scripting language or engine they are pimping. This book goes into WHY you should do things for game development. For example, the networking section talks about why you should do things for games that normally would never be done for non-game applications. Those nuggets of information, backed up by experience, are priceless.
Game Engine Architecture is a comprehensive beginner-friendly guide to the theory and practice of game engine software development. Author Jason Gregory draws from his decades-long experience at companies such as Midway, Electronic Arts and Naughty Dog.
In several of the cases listed here, the game's developers released the source code expressly to prevent their work from becoming abandonware. Such source code is often released under varying (free and non-free, commercial and non-commercial) software licenses to the games' communities or the public; artwork and data are often released under a different license than the source code, as the copyright situation is different or more complicated. The source code may be pushed by the developers to public repositories (e.g. SourceForge or GitHub), or given to selected game community members, or sold with the game, or become available by other means. The game may be written in an interpreted language such as BASIC or Python, and distributed as raw source code without being compiled; early software was often distributed in text form, as in the book BASIC Computer Games. In some cases when a game's source code is not available by other means, the game's community "reconstructs" source code from compiled binary files through time-demanding reverse engineering techniques.
Using the techniques listed above within a "bottom-up" development methodology process, the re-created source-code of a game is able to replicate the behavior of the original game exactly, often being "clock-cycle accurate", and/or "pixel-per-pixel accurate". This approach is in contrast to that used by game engine recreations, which are often made using a "top-down" development methodology, and which can result in duplicating the general features provided by a game engine, but not necessarily an accurate representation of the original game.
The Hexi Corridor is an important part of the Silk Road Economic Belt and a crucial channel for westward development in China. Many important national engineering projects pass through the corridor, such as highways, railways, and the West-to-East Gas Pipeline. The frequent torrent disasters greatly impact the security of infrastructure and human safety. In this study, an evidential reasoning approach based on Dempster-Shafer theory is proposed for mapping mountain torrent hazards in the Hexi Corridor. A torrent hazard map for the Hexi Corridor was generated by integrating the driving factors of mountain torrent disasters including precipitation, terrain, flow concentration processes, and the vegetation fraction. The results show that the capability of the proposed method is satisfactory. The torrent hazard map shows that there is high potential torrent hazard in the central and southeastern Hexi Corridor. The results are useful for engineering planning support and resource protection in the Hexi Corridor. Further efforts are discussed for improving torrent hazard mapping and prediction.
Torrential check dams have been built in French public forests since the 19th century, applying the Restoration and conservation of Mountainous Areas (RTM) laws (1860, 1864, 1882). The RTM department of the National Forestry Office (ONF) helps the government to decide on protective actions to implement within these areas. While more than 100 000 structures were registered in 1964, more than 14 000 check dams are currently registered and maintained within approximatively 380 000 ha of RTM public forests. The RTM department officers thus have a long experience in using check dams for soil restoration, but also in implementing other kinds of torrential protective structures such as sediment traps, embankments, bank protection, and so forth. As a part of the ONF, they are also experienced in forestry engineering. Nevertheless, some limits in torrent control management have been highlighted: - as existing protective structures are ageing, their effectiveness to protect elements at risk must be assessed but it is a difficult task ; - as available budget for maintenance is continuously decreasing, priorities have to be made but decisions are difficult : what are the existing check dams functions? what is their expected effect on torrential hazard? is maintenance cost too important given this expected effect to protect elements at risk? Given these questions, a new policy has been engaged by the RTM department since 2012. A technical overview at the torrential watershed scale is now needed to help better maintenance decisions: it has been called a Risk Watershed Analysis (Etude de Bassin de Risque in French, EBR) and is funded by the government. Its objectives are to: - recall initial objectives of protective structures : therefore, a detailed archive analysis is made ; - describe current elements at risk to protect ; - describe natural hazards at the torrential watershed scale and their evolution since protective structures implementation ; - describe civil engineering
In mountain streams possible negative impacts of check dams on soil, water and riparian vegetation due to check dam installation can be noticed. In spite of the ample literature on the qualitative effects of engineering works on channel hydrology, morphology, sedimentary effects and riparian vegetation characteristics, quantitative evaluations of the changes induced by check dams on headwater characteristics are rare. In order to fill this gap, this study has evaluated the effects of check dams located in headwaters of Calabria (Southern Italy) on hydrological and geomorphological processes and on the response of riparian vegetation to these actions. The analysis has compared physical and vegetation indicators in transects identified around check dams (upstream and downstream) and far from their direct influence (control transects). Check dams were found to influence significantly unit discharge, surface and subsurface sediments (both upstream and downstream), channel shape and transverse distribution of riparian vegetation (upstream) as well as cover and structure of riparian complexes (downstream). The actions of the structures on torrent longitudinal slope and biodiversity of vegetation were less significant. The differences on bed profile slope were significant only between upstream and downstream transects. The results of the Agglomerative Hierarchical Cluster analysis confirmed the substantial similarity between upstream and control transects, thus highlighting that the construction of check dams, needed to mitigate the hydro-geological risks, has not strongly influenced the torrent functioning and ecology before check dam construction. Moreover, simple and quantitative linkages between torrent hydraulics, geomorphology and vegetation characteristics exist in the analysed headwaters; these relationships among physical adjustments of channels and most of the resulting characteristics of the riparian vegetation are specific for the transect locations with
Mountain natural phenomena (e.g. torrential floods) put people and buildings at risk. Civil engineering protection works such as torrent check-dams are designed to mitigate those natural risks. Protection works act on both causes and effects of phenomena to reduce consequences and therefore risks. For instance, check-dams control sediment production and liquid/solid flow of torrential floods: several series of dams are located in the headwaters of a watershed, each having specific functions. All those works are damaged by time passing and flood impacts. Effectiveness assessment is needed to define, compare or choose strategies for investment and maintenance which are essential issues in risk management process. Decision support tools are expected to analyze at different scales both their technical effectiveness (related to their structural state and functional effects on phenomena such as stopping, braking, guiding, etc.) and their economic efficiency through comparison between benefits and costs. Several methods, often based on expert knowledge, have already been developed to care about decision under risk. But uncertainty has also to be considered, since decisions are indeed often taken in a context of lack of information and knowledge on natural phenomena, heterogeneity of available information and, finally, reliability of sources. First methods derived from classical industrial contexts, such as dependability analysis, are used to formalize expert knowledge used for decision-making. After having defined the concept of effectiveness, dependability analysis are used to identify decision contexts and problems: criteria and indicators are identified in relation with structural or functional features. Then, innovative and multi-scales multi-criteria decision-making methods (MCDMs) and frameworks are proposed to help assessing protection works effectiveness. They combine classical MCDM approaches, belief function, fuzzy sets and possibility theories. Those methods
Since the beginning of systematic torrent control in Austria 130 years ago, barriers are constructed for protection purposes. Until the end of the 1960s, solid barriers were built at the exits of depositional areas to prevent dangerous debris flows from reaching high consequence areas. The development of solid barriers with large slots or slits to regulate sediment transport began with the use of reinforced concrete during the 1970s (Rudolf-Miklau, Suda 2011). In order to dissipate the energy of debris flows debris flow breakers have been designed since the 1980s. By slowing and depositing the surge front of the debris flow, downstream reaches of the stream channel and settlement areas should be exposed to considerably lower dynamic impact. In the past, the technological development of these constructions was only steered by the experiences of the engineering practice while an institutionalized process of standardization comparable to other engineering branches was not existent. In future all structures have to be designed and dimensioned according to the EUROCODE standards. This was the reason to establish an interdisciplinary working group (ON-K 256) at the Austrian Standards Institute (ASI), which has managed to developed comprehensive new technical standards for torrent control engineering, including load models, design, dimensioning and life cycle assessment of torrent control works (technical standard ONR 24800 - series). Extreme torrential events comprise four definable displacement processes floods; fluvial solid transport; hyper-concentrated solid transport (debris floods) and debris flow (stony debris flow or mud-earth flow). As a rule, the design of the torrential barriers has to follow its function (Kettl, 1984). Modern protection concepts in torrent control are scenario-oriented and try to optimize different functions in a chain of protections structures (function chain). More or less the first step for the designing the optimal construction type is 2b1af7f3a8